FRESCO TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS
A fresco is a painting done on fresh plaster (calcina), that is done immediately on freshly applied plaster before it dries. The very word used by the Greek to indicate this type of painting, meant ?on humid?, and this corresponds well to current terminology of fresco which signifies ?fresh?.
In Renaissance Italy, fresco techniques were distinguished between buon fresco(good fresco) and fresco secco (dry fresco). In dry fresco, the painting was done on dry plaster with pigments having a glue or casein base. In true fresco the binder is provided by the lime of the plaster. In drying this forms a calcium carbonate that incorporates that incorporates the pure pigments, which are simply ground and diluted only with water.During the Renaissance, it became customary to prepare a cartoon or drawing of the same size of the fresco to be executed in order to facilitate the organization and implementation of the work. This design was transferred to the wall by making small holes in the drawing following the lines of the design. This was then held up against the intonaco (coat of wet plaster) and colored dust our pounce as applied through the perforations to transfer the full design to the wall to be frescoed. A large fresco therefore was made up of many small sections, each corresponding to the amount of painting that the artist could complete before the plaster hardened. The sections were planned in such a way as to make the joinings as inconspicuous as possible.
While there are some discordant opinions about whether fresco techniques were actually used in Ercolano and Pompeii, it is clear that the glorious tradition of true fresco painting in Italy was initiated by Masaccio. This exceptional artist used all the power of his educated and ingenious talent to fix on the walls of the Cappella del Carmine in Florence a complex set of images which is considered a true masterpiece of this technique. His works inspired subsequent artists including il Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Bartolomeo, Michelangelo and Raffaello, all painters of the highest order who have conferred nobility to Italian art.
The principal elements for a fresco are the wall, an underlying 'brown' layer of plaster (arriccio), the thick layer of outer plaster (intonaco), the calce, the sand and the water. The arricciato, or base plaster made if calce and sand, is applied to the wall. This is normally about 1 centimeter thick, but can be as much as 30-50 centimeters if it needs to hold complex decorations. On this base is spread the intonaco composed of less strong calce and finer sand. The thickness of this is always less than of the arricciato. Because the purity of the ingredients is an essential element of fresco painting, the water quality is very important for all aspects of the operation
The colors for fresco paintings must be of very fine grain. The alkaline content of the calce does not allow the use of the same colors as used in oil painting or in tempera paiting. However, there is a wide range of colors which are alkaline resistant and can be used for fresco paintings. For application, the colors are diluted with water. The density is correct when only a few drops fall off the brush which has been immersed in the paint. Obviously, the ?wet? colors are much darker and tend to lighten as they dry, thereby adding complexity to the process.
The application of the colors to the plaster requires that all the colors be prepared in small vases simultaneously. Also, vases of water must be ready for immediate rinsing of the brushes because the tonalities can otherwise be easily modified. The colors need to be applied in a dense form because the plaster absorbs them rapidly, and hence the colors tend to weaken. Every part of the drawing needs to be covered because later applications or ?touchings up? inevitably look like spots. Whenever it appears that the color has not taken, it often means that the work needs to be suspended because the plaster has hardened to the extent that it is no longer absorbant.
Some general instructions about fresco painting is that one should absolutely avoid passing light colors over dark colors, and similarly one should not apply dark colors to areas which are to be light. In the case of error, the section is washed, and if possible some additional plaster is applied and then painted over. Alternatively, the plaster has to be knocked down, and the entire process needs to be begun the next day. If the fresco is to be observed from a distance, the colors should be decisive and bold, because at a distance the weaker colors are simply not visible. The finalized fresco painting will lighten as it gradually dries. It takes at least three weeks to have an indication of the approximate outcome.
फ्रेस्को तकनीक और सामग्री
(प्रस्तुति -डॉ.लाल रत्नाकर , असो.प्रोफेसर)
सोमवार, 30 अगस्त 2010
Fresco Technique Historically
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मेरे बारे में
- GHAZIABAD, Uttar Pradesh, India
- कला के उत्थान के लिए यह ब्लॉग समकालीन गतिविधियों के साथ,आज के दौर में जब समय की कमी को, इंटर नेट पर्याप्त तरीके से भाग्दौर से बचा देता है, यही सोच करके इस ब्लॉग पर काफी जानकारियाँ डाली जानी है जिससे कला विद्यार्थियों के साथ साथ कला प्रेमी और प्रशंसक इसका रसास्वादन कर सकें . - डॉ.लाल रत्नाकर Dr.Lal Ratnakar, Artist, Associate Professor /Head/ Department of Drg.& Ptg. MMH College Ghaziabad-201001 (CCS University Meerut) आज की भाग दौर की जिंदगी में कला कों जितने समय की आवश्यकता है संभवतः छात्र छात्राएं नहीं दे पा रहे हैं, शिक्षा प्रणाली और शिक्षा के साथ प्रयोग और विश्वविद्यालयों की निति भी इनके प्रयोगधर्मी बने रहने में बाधक होने में काफी महत्त्व निभा रहा है . अतः कला शिक्षा और उसके उन्नयन में इसका रोल कितना है इसका मूल्याङ्कन होने में गुरुजनों की सहभागिता भी कम महत्त्व नहीं रखती.