गुरुवार, 7 अक्तूबर 2010

Titian's-TIZIANO Vecellio

(b. 1490, Pieve di Cadore, d. 1576, Venezia)
by-Dr.Lal Ratnakar


The greatest painter of the Venetian School. The evidence for his birthdate is contradictory, but he was certainly very old when he died. He was probably a pupil of Giovanni Bellini, and in his early work he came under the spell of Giorgione, with whom he had a close relationship. In 1508 he assisted him with the external fresco decoration of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, Venice, and after Giorgione's early death in 1510 it fell to Titian to complete a number of his unfinished paintings. The authorship of certain works (some of them famous) is still disputed between them.

Titian's first major independent commission was for three frescoes on the life of St Antony of Padua in the Scuola del Santo, Padua (1511), noble and dignified paintings suggesting an almost central Italian firmness and monumentality. When he returned to Venice, Giorgione having died and Sebastiano having gone to Rome, the aged Bellini alone stood between him and supremacy, and that only until 1516 when Bellini died and Titian became official painter to the Republic. He maintained his position as the leading painter in the city until his death sixty years later.

In the second decade of the century Titian broke free from the stylistic domination of Giorgione and developed a manner of his own. Something of a fusion between Titian's worldliness and Giorgione's poetry is seen in the enigmatic allegory known as Sacred and Profane Love (Borghese Gallery, Rome, c. 1515), but his style soon became much more dynamic. This work inaugurated a brilliant period in Titian's creative career during which he produced splendid religious, mythological, and portrait paintings, original in conception and vivid with colour and movement.

The work that more than any other established his reputation is the huge altarpiece of The Assumption of the Virgin (Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, 1516-18). It is the largest picture he ever painted and one of the greatest, matching the achievements of his most illustrious contemporaries in Rome in grandeur of form and surpassing them in splendour of colour. The soaring movement of the Virgin, rising from the tempestuous group of Apostles towards the hovering figure of God the Father looks forward to the Baroque. Similar qualities are seen in his two most famous altarpieces of the 1520s: the Pesaro altarpiece (Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, 1519-26), a bold diagonal composition of great magnificence, and The Death of St Peter Martyr (completed 1530), which he painted for the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, having defeated Palma Vecchio andPordenone in competition for the commission. The painting was destroyed by fire in 1867, but it is known through copies and engraving; trees and figures together form a violent centrifugal composition suited to the action, and Vasari described it as 'the most celebrated, the greatest work... that Titian has ever done'.

Titian had important secular as well as ecclesiastical patrons in this energetic period of his career, one of his most important commissions being three mythological pictures (1518-23) for Alfonso d'Este - the Worship of Venus, the Bacchanal(both in the Prado, Madrid), and the Bacchus and Ariadne (National Gallery, London). Outstanding among his portraits of the time is the exquisite Man with a Glove (Louvre, Paris, c. 1520).

About 1530, the year in which his wife died, a change in Titian's manner becomes apparent. The vivacity of former years gave way to a more restrained and meditative art. He now began to use related rather than contrasting colours in juxtaposition, yellows and pale shades rather than the strong blues and reds of his previous work. In composition too he became less adventurous and used schemes which, compared with some of his earlier works, appear almost archaic. Thus his large Presentation of the Virgin (Accademia, Venice, 1534-38) makes use of the relief-like frieze composition dear to the quattrocento. During the 1530s Titian's fame spread throughout Europe. In 1530 he first met the emperor Charles V (in Bologna, where he was crowned in that year) and in 1533 he painted a famous portrait of him (Prado) based on a portrait by the Austrian Seisenegger. Charles was so pleased with it that he appointed Titian court painter and elevated him to the rank of Count Palatine and Knight of the Golden Spur - an unprecedented honour for a painter. At the same time his works were increasingly sought after by Italian princes, as with the celebrated Venus of Urbino (Uffizi, Florence, c. 1538), named after its owner, Guidobaldo, Duke of Camerino, who later became Duke of Urbino. The pose is based on Giorgione's Sleeping Venus (Gemäldegalerie, Dresden), but Titian substitutes a direct sensual appeal for Giorgione's idyllic remoteness.

Early in the 1540s Titian came under the influence of central and north Italian Mannerism, and in 1545-46 he made his first and only journey to Rome. There he was deeply impressed not only by modern works such as Michelangelo's Last Judgment, but also by the remains of antiquity. His own paintings during this visit aroused much interest, his Danae (Museo di Capodimonte, Naples) being praised for its handling and colour and (according to Vasari) criticized for its inexact drawing by Michelangelo. Titian also painted in Rome the famous portrait of Pope Paul III and his Nephews (Museo di Capodimonte). The decade closed with further imperial commissions. In 1548 the emperor summoned Titian to Augsburg, where he painted both a formal equestrian portrait (Charles V at the Battle of Muhlberg, Prado) and a more intimate one showing him seated in an armchair (Alte Pinakothek, Munich).

He travelled to Augsburg again in 1550 and this time painted portraits of Charles's son, the future Philip II of Spain, who was to be the greatest patron of his later career. Titian's work for Philip included a series of seven erotic mythological subjects (c. 1550 - c. 1562): Danae and Venus and Adonis (Prado), Perseus and Andromeda (Wallace Collection, London), The Rape of Europa (Gardner Museum, Boston), Diana and Actaeon and Diana and Callisto (National Gallery of Scotland), and The Death of Actaeon (National Gallery, London). Titian referred to these pictures as 'poesie', and they are indeed highly poetic visions of distant worlds, quite different from the sensual realities of his earlier mythological paintings.

Titian ran a busy studio, his assistants including his brother Francesco Vecellio (c. 1490-1559/60), his son Orazio, and his cousin Cesare. Of these only Francesco seems to have had any individual substance as a painter, but his oeuvre is not well defined. During the last twenty years of his life Titian's personal works, as opposed to those produced under his supervision and with his intervention, showed an increasing looseness in the handling and a sensitive merging of subdued colours, so that outlines disappear and the forms become more immaterial. With this went a growing emphasis on intimate pathos rather than external drama. About 1550-55 he had painted a powerful Martyrdom of St Lawrence(Gesuiti, Venice), which had affinities with Mannerism in the types and movements of the figures. In 1564-67 he repeated the picture (Escorial, Madrid), but now the light, which played a dramatic part in the first version, became the chief feature, creating and dissolving forms.

His interest in new pictorial conceptions waned but his powers remained undimmed until the end, his career closing with the awe-inspiring Pietà (Accademia, Venice, 1573-76), intended for his own tomb and finished after his death by Palma Giovane.

Titian was recognized as a towering genius in his own time (Lomazzo described him as the 'sun amidst small stars not only among the Italians but all the painters of the world') and his reputation as one of the giants of art has never been seriously questioned. He was supreme in every branch of painting and his achievements were so varied - ranging from the joyous evocation of pagan antiquity in his early mythologies to the depths of tragedy in his late religious paintings — that he has been an inspiration to artists of very different character. Poussin, Rubens, and Velázquez are among the painters who have particularly revered him. In many subjects, above all in portraiture, he set patterns that were followed by generations of artists. His free and expressive brushwork revolutionized the oil technique: Vasari wrote that his late works 'are executed with bold, sweeping strokes, and in patches of colour, with the result that they cannot be viewed from near by, but appear perfect at a distance... The method he used is judicious, beautiful, and astonishing, for it makes pictures appear alive and painted with great art, but it conceals the labour that has gone into them.' His greatness as an artist, it appears, was not matched by his character, for he was notoriously avaricious. In spite of his wealth and status, he claimed he was impoverished, and his exaggerations about his age (by which he hoped to pull at the heartstrings of patrons) are one of the sources of confusion about his birthdate. Jacopo Bassano caricatured him as a moneylender in his Purification of the Temple (National Gallery, London). Titian, however, was lavish in his hospitality towards his friends, who included the poet Pietro Aretino and the sculptor and architect Jacopo Sansovino. These three were so close that they were known in Venice as the triumvirate, and they used their influence with their respective patrons to further each other's careers.

Paintings of religious subject-matter (1510s)

Christ Carrying the Cross,1506-07, Oil on canvas, 70 x 100 cm | Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice

Rustic Idyll,1507-08, Oil on panel, 46 x 44 cm | Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge

Christ and the Adulteress,1508-10, Oil on canvas, 139 x 182 cm | Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow

The Holy Family with a Shepherd,c. 1510,Oil on canvas, 106 x 143 cm | National Gallery, London

Pope Alexander VI Presenting Jacopo Pesaro to St Peter,1506-11, Oil on canvas, 146 x 184 cm | Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

Head of a Man, c. 1509, Oil on canvas, 47 x 41 cm | Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow

Judith, c. 1509, Detached fresco, 212 x 346 cm | Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice

Mary with the Child and Saints, c. 1510, Oil on canvas, 108 x 132 cm | Musée du Louvre, Paris

The Gipsy Madonna, c. 1511, Oil on panel, 66 x 84 cm | Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Madonna and Child with Sts Anthony of Padua and Roch, c. 1511, Oil on canvas, 92 x 133 cm | Museo del Prado, Madrid

Noli me tangere, 1511-12, Oil on canvas, 109 x 91 cm | National Gallery, London

Holy Family and Donor, 1513-14, Oil on canvas, Alte Pinakothek, Munich

Madonna and Child with Sts Catherine and Dominic and a Donor,1512-16, Oil on canvas, 138 x 185 cm | Fondazione Magnani Rocca, Mamiano

View of the Sala Capitolare, 1511, Frescoes, Scuola del Santo, Padua

The Miracle of the Newborn Child,1511, Fresco, 340 x 355 cm | Scuola del Santo, Padua

The Healing of the Wrathful Son, 1511, Fresco, 340 x 207 cm | Scuola del Santo, Padua

The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, 1511, Fresco, 340 x 185 cm | Scuola del Santo, Padua

Madonna of the Cherries
c. 1515
Oil on wood, transferred to canvas, 81 x 100 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

The Tribute Money
Oil on panel, 75 x 56 cm
Gemäldegalerie, Dresden

Madonna and Child with Sts Dorothy and George
Oil on panel, 86 x 130 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

The Annunciation
c. 1519
Oil on wood, 179 x 207 cm
Cappella di Malchiostro, Duomo, Treviso

Paintings of religious subject-matter (1520s)

Polyptych of the Resurrection
Oil on canvas, 278 x 122 cm
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Brescia

Polyptych of the Resurrection: Resurrection
Oil on canvas
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Bresci

Polyptych of the Resurrection: Sts Nazaro and Celso

Oil on canvas
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Brescia

Polyptych of the Resurrection: St Sebastian
Oil on canvas
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Brescia

Polyptych of the Resurrection: Archangel Gabriel
Oil on canvas
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Brescia

Polyptych of the Resurrection: Virgin Annunciate
Oil on canvas
Santi Nazaro e Celso, Brescia

Madonna in Glory with the Christ Child and Sts Francis and Alvise with the Donor
Oil on canvas, 312 x 215 cm
Museo Civico, Ancona

Entombment of Christ
Oil on canvas, 148 x 205 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

St Christopher
Fresco, 310 x 186 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice

Paintings of religious subject-matter (1530s)

Madonna and Child with Saints
Oil on canvas, 101 x 142 cm
National Gallery, London

Supper at Emmaus
c. 1530
Oil on canvas, 169 x 244 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

St Mary Magdalene
c. 1532
Oil on wood, 84 x 69 cm
Galleria Palatina (Palazzo Pitti), Florence

Christ the Redeemer

Oil on wood, 77 x 57 cm
Galleria Palatina (Palazzo Pitti), Florence

Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple
Oil on canvas, 345 x 775 cm
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple (detail)
Oil on canvas
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple (detail)
Oil on canvas
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

c. 1535
Oil on canvas, 166 x 266 cm
Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice

Paintings of religious subject-matter (1540s)

Crowning with Thorns
Oil on panel, 303 x 181 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

St John the Baptist in the Desert
c. 1542
Oil on canvas, 201 x 134 cm
Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

The Resurrection
Oil on canvas, 163 x 104 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Urbino

The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross
Oil on canvas, 206 x 289 cm
National Gallery, London

The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross (detail)
Oil on canvas
National Gallery, London

The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross (detail)
Oil on canvas
National Gallery, London

Virgin and Child
c. 1545
Oil on panel, 38 x 31 cm
Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, Pedralbes

Ecce Homo
Oil on canvas, 242 x 361 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Ecce Homo
Oil on slate, 68 x 53 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

St John the Almsgiver
Oil on canvas, 264 x 148 cm
San Giovanni Elemosinario, Venice

Paintings of religious subject-matter (1550s)

Adam and Eve
c. 1550
Oil on canvas, 240 x 186 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

The Trinity in Glory
c. 1552-54
Oil on canvas, 346 x 240 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

Mater Dolorosa
Oil on marble, 68 x 53 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

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GHAZIABAD, Uttar Pradesh, India
कला के उत्थान के लिए यह ब्लॉग समकालीन गतिविधियों के साथ,आज के दौर में जब समय की कमी को, इंटर नेट पर्याप्त तरीके से भाग्दौर से बचा देता है, यही सोच करके इस ब्लॉग पर काफी जानकारियाँ डाली जानी है जिससे कला विद्यार्थियों के साथ साथ कला प्रेमी और प्रशंसक इसका रसास्वादन कर सकें . - डॉ.लाल रत्नाकर Dr.Lal Ratnakar, Artist, Associate Professor /Head/ Department of Drg.& Ptg. MMH College Ghaziabad-201001 (CCS University Meerut) आज की भाग दौर की जिंदगी में कला कों जितने समय की आवश्यकता है संभवतः छात्र छात्राएं नहीं दे पा रहे हैं, शिक्षा प्रणाली और शिक्षा के साथ प्रयोग और विश्वविद्यालयों की निति भी इनके प्रयोगधर्मी बने रहने में बाधक होने में काफी महत्त्व निभा रहा है . अतः कला शिक्षा और उसके उन्नयन में इसका रोल कितना है इसका मूल्याङ्कन होने में गुरुजनों की सहभागिता भी कम महत्त्व नहीं रखती.